The paper presents the design and implementation of a highly available key-value storage system. The problem is that database systems are far too complex and scale poorly in a distributed setting for the requirements of modern large scale software services.
The high level idea of Dynamo is to trade consistency for availability. The query model is a single key lookup and eventual consistency. In Dynamo, conflict resolution occurs at reads rather than writes (in contrast to traditional systems or Google's Bigtable). Dynamo's architecture can be characterized as a zero-hop DHT, where each node has pointers to all the other nodes (to reduce latency and its variability).
I found interesting to see how previous research works in DHTs (e.g virtual nodes) and distributed systems (e.g. vector clocks) are combined to form a real working system in industry.